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These cells large, nonmotile eggs and small, motile sperm fuse to form a new diploid individual called a zygote. The zygote undergoes a series of cell divisions, called cleavage, to form a hollow, multicellular ball known as a blastula.

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The blastula then folds in on itself to form a gastrula, a double-walled structure with an opening to the outside called the blastopore. Some animals including all mammals develop and mature directly into adults but the development of most animals includes larval stages. Larvae are immature forms that are morphologically distinct from adults.

The process of metamorphosis transforms larvae into A jellyfish is a radially symmetric animal with internal organs that are visible through its transparent, gelatinous body. A familiar example is the metamorphosis of a tadpole into a frog.


Although taxonomists disagree about the identity of major animal groups and the relationships among them, most agree that Animalia is monophyletic. This means that all animals can trace their descent to a single common ancestor. There are approximately thirty-two living animal groups, or phyla, each with a distinctive body plan and biological properties. All of these are the survivors of the one hundred or so animal phyla that evolved during the Cambrian explosion.

This incredible diversity of animal body plans and lifestyles arose in the relatively short period of 40 million years, between and million years ago. All of today's remarkably diverse animal forms are variations on the basic body plans that evolved during the Cambrian. The most primitive animal group is the phylum Porifera, the sponges. The remaining animal groups can be divided into radial and bilaterally symmetric animals. Radially symmetric animals are the cnidarians, including jellyfish, corals, and anemones, and ctenophores, or comb jellies.

Animals have been hunted and farmed for their fur to make items such as coats and hats.

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Working animals including cattle and horses have been used for work and transport from the first days of agriculture. Animals such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster serve a major role in science as experimental models. People have used hunting dogs to help chase down and retrieve animals, [] and birds of prey to catch birds and mammals, [] while tethered cormorants have been used to catch fish.

However, the most kept pet species are mammals, namely dogs , cats , and rabbits. Animals have been the subjects of art from the earliest times, both historical, as in Ancient Egypt , and prehistoric, as in the cave paintings at Lascaux. In both Japan and Europe, a butterfly was seen as the personification of a person's soul, [] [] [] while the scarab beetle was sacred in ancient Egypt.

The signs of the Western and Chinese zodiacs are based on animals. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Animal disambiguation. For other uses, see Animalia disambiguation. Kingdom of motile multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophic organisms. Temporal range: Cryogenian — present, —0Ma Had'n. Major animal taxa.

Further information: Largest organisms and Smallest organisms. Total number of described species as of [update] : 1,, [61]. Further information: Urmetazoan.

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Further information: Lists of animals. Further information: Embryological origins of the mouth and anus. Main articles: Protostome and Deuterostome. Main article: Ecdysozoa. Main article: Spiralia. Further information: Taxonomy biology , History of zoology through , and History of zoology since Main article: Animals in culture. The Oxford Dictionary of Word Origins 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press. The American Heritage Dictionary 4th ed. Houghton Mifflin Company.


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The world of the cell. The Princeton Review. Biology: Concepts and Applications without Physiology. Cengage Learning. Fossil Invertebrates. Translated by J. CUP Archive. Archived from the original on 7 May Retrieved 8 January Encyclopedia of reproduction, Volume 1. Academic Press. Master the GED Population genetics. General zoology.

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Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 5 March Geomorphology and environmental impact assessment. Elements of Biology. Ecology: Individuals, populations and communities Third ed. Blackwell Science. Ecology of marine fishes: California and adjacent waters. University of California Press. Antipredator Defenses in Birds and Mammals. University of Chicago Press.