Clusters, Innovation and Entrepreneurship
The Innovative Business Networks are usually smaller, bottom-up initiatives, receiving support for a period of three years to organise a collaboration dynamic in a specific domain that could lead to the increased competitiveness of companies. Both spearhead clusters and Innovative Business Networks focus on Flemish companies that have growth ambitions, innovation awareness, and an international attitude, and that are open to collaborations with other companies and knowledge centres.
If this appeals to you, check the various initiatives and discover which cluster best suits your interests.
Innovation & Entrepreneurship
On 4 March , the Flemish government approved the resolution that defines the support for the innovation clusters in Flanders. The goal of the cluster policy is to unlock unused economic potential and to realise competitiveness growth among Flemish companies through active and sustainable collaboration between actors. We will contact you if necessary.
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Can I get a copy? Can I view this online? Ask a librarian. Korea OECD reviews of innovation policy. Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander and other First Nations people are advised that this catalogue contains names, recordings and images of deceased people and other content that may be culturally sensitive. Book , Online - Google Books. It is also clear that innovation can be explicitly managed Roberts, Therefore, innovation is important not only for developed countries, but for Latin America as well. Latin American countries suffer serious handicaps in creating innovations.
Casas et al. In Latin America, many researches Katz, have concentrated on sources of competitiveness and discovered that the tendency to patent continues to be insufficient. Lately there has been an improvement in the conditions to develop a system of sustainable innovation Constantino, , but there continues insufficient investment and output to reach levels of growth like that new industrialized countries like Taiwan or South Korea. A great deal of basic infrastructure investment is required in terms of labs, libraries, connectivity and education to close the gap with developed countries Mayorga, In Latin America, innovations are primarily associated with adapting existing products,technologies, organizational or commercial strategies previously created in developed countries.
Profits in these cases are generally lacking as products entry into mature markets. In consequence, new product creation is not associated with the development of new know-how Perez, Few university researchers work on local realities as they are continually chasing grants available only in developed countries, following priorities of international agencies and their better-endowed colleagues elsewhere.
The table 1 shows the situation in Table 1 Patent in a Selected Group of Countries. The incorporation of knowledge and competitiveness to those same resources is imperative so the country can improve its innovation rates and impacts. Mullin et al.
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For year , the table 2 shows the top ten economies in addition the better-ranked Latin-American countries for a analysed economies. Chile is the best country ranked in a 23 position, but it is not sufficient for that continue to growth their economy in the future. The second Latin American country behind Chile is Uruguay in 54th position. Another good example and important contribution for de WEF is the Global Information Technology Report that determines national information and communication technologies strengths and weaknesses, and evaluate progress in the participants' countries.
Table 3 shows the top ten ranked economies in addition the ten best Latin-American countries for a analysed economies.
Clusters of Entrepreneurship and Innovation
Chile, one again is the better Latin American country in 35th position, followed this time by Brazil in 46th position. If we correlate these two indexes, we can observe a high correlation value see figure I. In words of the Professor Dr. In doing this, we will need to compare Chile with appropriate industrialized countries e.
Australia, Canada and with countries that are recently industrialized Taiwan, South Korea.
Evidently in Latin America there are some significant gaps related in which sectors is innovation occurring and how much money is putting on high growth initiatives and how could be possible to integrate all the actors on the industrial and services sectors. For understand these questions, we need to identify the value of entrepreneurship, because is hand in hand with innovation and a motor for economy growth and clusters setup.
Entrepreneurship is the process of creating a new business.
It refers both to the creation of a start up business by a small founding team with few initial resources, other than the concept, as well as the creation of a new branch of an existing business which benefits from knowledge and funding from the parent business, but operates and evolves independently Shumpeter, ; Block and MacMillan, As a field of research, entrepreneurship is a relative young and rapidly expanding field of knowledge. Not surprisingly, the word entrepreneurship has different meanings to different people, so is difficult to define precisely.
Researchers stress that entrepreneurship is not only the act of creating the venture, but defines a set of personality characteristics, team functioning, management processes and business collaborations. The process of entrepreneurship in most general terms creates value for owners, participants and stakeholders, expressed within the paradigm of business management Stevenson et al.
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Entrepreneurship occurs not only in individuals, but also in firms, governments and non-governmental organizations and goes hand in hand with innovation Drucker, Entrepreneurship is a key motor for economic growth and new job generation Birch, The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Study, GEM, shows that a large number of people are engaged in entrepreneurial endeavours around the globe. Based on a sample of 35 countries representing a total labour force of million, GEM research estimates that 73 million adults are either starting a new business or managing a young business of which they are also an owner Acs et al, ; Minniti et al, Entrepreneurship is vital for social and economic development in Latin America.
Tiffin's study on this topic, with contributions from 13 authors shows rapidly increasing interest and involvement in nearly all countries of the region. Even though the research efforts on many aspects of entrepre neurship in the region, there are very differing views about levels of entrepreneurship in Latin America. While the GEM studies consistently place Latin American countries among the most entrepreneurial in the world, others, operating outside the GEM methodology, show it considerably low, compared with other emerging economies like South-eastern Asia countries Casas, Etzkowitz and Carvalho de Mello, Chile has experienced a remarkable transformation in the last 20 years, both in terms of economic growth and institutional development.
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Export of natural resources or commodities basically copper, wood, fruit and fish and some low value-added processing led the economic expansion until the mids, but in the last few years the economic growth has showed variations and lower degrees of growth Echecopar, For this reason, there is an emerging interest in opinion leaders from public administration, business and general society on how to develop more value-added industries. We think that entrepreneurship and innovation are keys to overcoming this recent lack of dynamism in the economy. There have been some recent studies of entrepreneurship in Chile, although within a more traditional economic framework and focusing on SMEs and their relation to new firm creation Crespi, Other studies describe some factors on the start-up process and associated entrepreneurship programs Echecopar, , Tiffin, While in the last years there have been important efforts to understand entrepreneurship in Chile, they have not really shown any clear relationship between the creation of new business, innovation and networked clusters, nor any existence of virtuous mechanisms that will continue to improve the performance of critical economic sectors of the country.
Therefore, we intend to begin researching critical success factors in the creation of new business ventures, both start-ups and corporate entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship that is base on a high technology and knowledge innovations and promise to be platforms for creation of new industrial sectors in Chile. The country needs to transform the typical self-employment or new business venturing in primary extraction clusters from isolated experiences involved with local markets, to a strong, networked innovations firms competing globally. For this commitment, is important to develop a more compressible theoretical model to understand this phenomenon on Latina America context.
Second, we will do a networked map of new venture generation capability of selected industries; an understanding of how characteristics of technology and innovation influence the creation of new firms; and how entrepreneurial firms can improve their performance working on collaborative multi-firm network basically those young entrepreneurial small firms can engage in continuous innovation processes Miles and Snow, Natural Resource Clusters around Innovation and Entrepreneurship.
We are interested in natural resources clusters as a mechanism for organizing and enhancing innovation and entrepreneurship. Clusters are generally seen as organizational structures that enhance industrial productivity and innovation.
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They concentrating a significant number of firms and related organizations that complement each other, stimulate competition and provide shared information, it is generally agree, they generate efficiencies that help firms compete in local and international markets Porter, In the last few decades, the concept of industrial districts or production clusters has been extend to innovation clusters, where the group of firms has an enhanced capability to produce a continuous stream of new products and services. Lundvall, ; Rosenberg and Birdzell, However, there is substantially less material relating to clusters and entrepreneurship.
Audretsch , Feldmann , Rosenberg , are some of the main contributors. Ireland, Hitt and Sirmon , Goreman and McCarthy , have proposed some concepts about business development that might be extended to cluster analysis, helping to join these rather separate concepts of entrepreneurship and innovation into a more common framework. The difficulty with the cluster concept is to define which organizations are involved, based on what they share, how they influence each other and how they give a group of disparate actors some interactive, systemic characteristics. Models of clusters abound, to handle this complexity, with the most influential one promoted by Porter , although it has been shown that his concepts do not hold fully in some industries and locations that are quite different than those in large urban centres typical of the USA Niosi, Landry cuts this Gordian Knot by measuring interactions among players to determine by the strength and type of their ties to determine who is more in than out of the cluster and what role do they play Keroack, Ouimet and Landry, ; Landry and Amara, In defining, what clusters are and how they work, it is clear that they are characterized by relationships among organizations and people; tacit, associative, trust components are more meaningful than physical or infrastructure components Gomes-Casseres, ; Burt, It is also important to get an idea of a cluster's spatial organization.
While the literature focuses on local clusters Hall, and national systems of innovation, it is also known that they are increasingly having global characteristics Gibson and Stiles, In addition, most importantly, clusters are seen as structures that can evolve both to adapt to changing competitive circumstances and to more complex, higher-value added forms, if they have the right kind of knowledge and learning components and certain creativity characteristics Florida, Not surprisingly, industrialized countries researchers on developed economies have carried out nearly all the literature on clusters.
Much of it refers to high tech industry Niosi, How well it applies to Latin America and Chile is not clear, although we tend to think that the overall dynamics are universal.
The subset of cluster literature that is focused on development in peripheral regions within developed countries Cooke, seems applicable to this particular topic within the Latin American context.